HIGHLIGHTS OF EDUCATIONAL REFORMS DATE BACK COLONIAL DAYS
A . Prologue of castle Schools by the Europeans, around 1529.
Purposely to train children of colonial masters(ie molattoes) and children of some other important chiefs & wealthy merchants
Purpose : For communication to enhance their training businesses and evangelism(ie interpretation of language, reading and writing and numeracy.3 Rs)
B . REFORMS IN EDUCATION
1. 1951 Accelerated Development Plan for education.
Purpose For expansion of education to make it universal and training of more teachers.
- Six year Primary education established
- Middle School as post Primary
-More Training Colleges established
- Assisting existing second Cycle institutions and building new ones
- THE 1961_EDUCATIONAL_ ACT ,( ACT 87)
Purpose ; Meant for feefree at the basic level of education to allow more children to go to school
To have laws and regulations to govern both public and private schools.
-empowered MOE to make laws to regulate schools in Ghana
-Compulsory Primary Education for all school going age of 6yrs
– engaging the local authorities to help in the infrastructure of the schools.
- 1963 also saw a policy supplying free textbooks to students to continue to encourage parent to send their wards to school
NB. The interventions brought about missive increase in school enrollment thereby overstretching the existing school facilities and later brought about the the school shift system
- 1966 – 1969 Curriculum Reviews
NLC govt put some committees in place to look into aspects of educational systems.
Kwapong Educational Review Committee and Mill Odei commission.
These two comtees gave some recommendations and among them were;
- Textbooks fee at middle school
- Common Entrance Exams to Sec. Schs.
3 Expansion in Secondary Schools/continuation schools
Mills Odei also recommends that;
1. There should be
Decentralization of education management from MOE to Regional. District and Local authorities
- DZOBO COMMITTEE
They recommended a shift from British education of 3 Rs to 3Hs
ie Cognitive (training the Head)
Affective(training the Heart)
Psychomotor (training the Hand)
- New education structure proposed was 2, 6, 3 for basic and was to be free.
This was not implemented due to economic difficulties at the time but rather Experimental JSS were established along side the ‘O’ & ‘ A’ levels Secondary School system.
1987 EDUCATIONAL REFORMS under PNDC
A committee was put to review Dzobo’s C’tee report and see to it’s implementation
Reforms made were;
- Pre tertiary education 12 yrs. (is prim-6, JSS-3 , SSS- 3)
- Introduction of Technical and Vocational education
- Continues Assessment method in assessing pupils
- Introduction of Guidance and Counseling in schools
- Introduction of Non-Formal Education
- Revitalized PTA in Schools
Concept of community Day Schools at Secondary levels especially the new Sec schools
THE 1996 FCUBE PROGRAM
Read it’s objectives and interventions
- THE 2008 EDUCATIONAL REFORM , ACT 778
Read the highlights ie
1.The structure of education system 2,6,3 at Basic education level, 4 yrs SHS which later was changed to 3yrs
- Establishment of councils such as NCCA, NTC, NIB & NCTE
- Upgrading of TTCs to CoE
- Full implementation of FCUBE which brought about Capitation Grant
- Introduction of some subject like ICT BDT, French etc at the pre tertiary levels
The new educational policy yet to be implemented must also be studied
Some highlights are;
4 yr Bachelor Degree at Colleges of Education. Vis-à-vis their allowances
OTHER THINGS TO KNOW
Licensing of teachers
New Ranks/Grades in GES.
New Free SHS policy